Here is a curated list of Reinforcement Learning materials that we've gathered over the years. This is shared with our new employees and we thought we'd share it with the rest of the world.

**Theory**

###### Lectures

- [UCL] COMPM050/COMPGI13 Reinforcement Learning by David Silver
- Video Lectures by David Silver https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pWv7GOvuf0&list=PL5X3mDkKaJrL42i_jhE4N-p6E2Ol62Ofa
- [UC Berkeley] CS188 Artificial Intelligence by Pieter Abbeel
- Lecture 8: Markov Decision Processes 1
- Lecture 9: Markov Decision Processes 2
- Lecture 10: Reinforcement Learning 1
- Lecture 11: Reinforcement Learning 2
- [Udacity (Georgia Tech.)] Machine Learning 3: Reinforcement Learning (CS7641)
- [Stanford] CS229 Machine Learning - Lecture 16: Reinforcement Learning by Andrew Ng

**Books**

- Richard Sutton and Andrew Barto, Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction [Book] [Code]
- Csaba Szepesvari, Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning [Book]
- David Poole and Alan Mackworth, Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents [Book Chapter]
- Dimitri P. Bertsekas and John N. Tsitsiklis, Neuro-Dynamic Programming [Book (Amazon)] [Summary]
- Mykel J. Kochenderfer, Decision Making Under Uncertainty: Theory and Application [Book (Amazon)]

**Surveys**

- Leslie Pack Kaelbling, Michael L. Littman, Andrew W. Moore, Reinforcement Learning: A Survey, JAIR, 1996.[Paper]
- S. S. Keerthi and B. Ravindran, A Tutorial Survey of Reinforcement Learning, Sadhana, 1994. [Paper]
- Matthew E. Taylor, Peter Stone, Transfer Learning for Reinforcement Learning Domains: A Survey, JMLR, 2009.[Paper]
- Jens Kober, J. Andrew Bagnell, Jan Peters, Reinforcement Learning in Robotics, A Survey, IJRR, 2013. [Paper]
- Michael L. Littman, "Reinforcement learning improves behaviour from evaluative feedback." Nature 521.7553 (2015): 445-451. [Paper]
- Marc P. Deisenroth, Gerhard Neumann, Jan Peter, A Survey on Policy Search for Robotics, Foundations and Trends in Robotics, 2014. [Book]

**Papers / Thesis**

- Foundational Papers
- Marvin Minsky, Steps toward Artificial Intelligence, Proceedings of the IRE, 1961. [Paper]
- discusses issues in RL such as the "credit assignment problem"
- Ian H. Witten, An Adaptive Optimal Controller for Discrete-Time Markov Environments, Information and Control, 1977. [Paper]
- earliest publication on temporal-difference (TD) learning rule.
- Methods
- Dynamic Programming (DP):
- Christopher J. C. H. Watkins, Learning from Delayed Rewards, Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge University, 1989.[Thesis]
- Monte Carlo:
- Andrew Barto, Michael Duff, Monte Carlo Inversion and Reinforcement Learning, NIPS, 1994. [Paper]
- Satinder P. Singh, Richard S. Sutton, Reinforcement Learning with Replacing Eligibility Traces, Machine Learning, 1996. [Paper]
- Temporal-Difference:
- Richard S. Sutton, Learning to predict by the methods of temporal differences. Machine Learning 3: 9-44, 1988. [Paper]
- Q-Learning (Off-policy TD algorithm):
- Chris Watkins, Learning from Delayed Rewards, Cambridge, 1989. [Thesis]
- Sarsa (On-policy TD algorithm):
- G.A. Rummery, M. Niranjan, On-line Q-learning using connectionist systems, Technical Report, Cambridge Univ., 1994. [Report]
- Richard S. Sutton, Generalization in Reinforcement Learning: Successful examples using sparse coding, NIPS, 1996. [Paper]
- R-Learning (learning of relative values)
- Andrew Schwartz, A Reinforcement Learning Method for Maximizing Undiscounted Rewards, ICML, 1993.[Paper-Google Scholar]
- Function Approximation methods (Least-Sqaure Temporal Difference, Least-Sqaure Policy Iteration)
- Steven J. Bradtke, Andrew G. Barto, Linear Least-Squares Algorithms for Temporal Difference Learning, Machine Learning, 1996. [Paper]
- Michail G. Lagoudakis, Ronald Parr, Model-Free Least Squares Policy Iteration, NIPS, 2001. [Paper][Code]
- Policy Search / Policy Gradient
- Richard Sutton, David McAllester, Satinder Singh, Yishay Mansour, Policy Gradient Methods for Reinforcement Learning with Function Approximation, NIPS, 1999. [Paper]
- Jan Peters, Sethu Vijayakumar, Stefan Schaal, Natural Actor-Critic, ECML, 2005. [Paper]
- Jens Kober, Jan Peters, Policy Search for Motor Primitives in Robotics, NIPS, 2009. [Paper]
- Jan Peters, Katharina Mulling, Yasemin Altun, Relative Entropy Policy Search, AAAI, 2010. [Paper]
- Freek Stulp, Olivier Sigaud, Path Integral Policy Improvement with Covariance Matrix Adaptation, ICML, 2012. [Paper]
- Nate Kohl, Peter Stone, Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning for Fast Quadrupedal Locomotion, ICRA, 2004. [Paper]
- Marc Deisenroth, Carl Rasmussen, PILCO: A Model-Based and Data-Efficient Approach to Policy Search, ICML, 2011. [Paper]
- Scott Kuindersma, Roderic Grupen, Andrew Barto, Learning Dynamic Arm Motions for Postural Recovery, Humanoids, 2011. [Paper]
- Hierarchical RL
- Richard Sutton, Doina Precup, Satinder Singh, Between MDPs and Semi-MDPs: A Framework for Temporal Abstraction in Reinforcement Learning, Artificial Intelligence, 1999. [Paper]
- George Konidaris, Andrew Barto, Building Portable Options: Skill Transfer in Reinforcement Learning, IJCAI, 2007. [Paper]
- Deep Learning + Reinforcement Learning (A sample of recent works on DL+RL)
- V. Mnih, et. al., Human-level Control through Deep Reinforcement Learning, Nature, 2015. [Paper]
- Xiaoxiao Guo, Satinder Singh, Honglak Lee, Richard Lewis, Xiaoshi Wang, Deep Learning for Real-Time Atari Game Play Using Offline Monte-Carlo Tree Search Planning, NIPS, 2014. [Paper]
- Sergey Levine, Chelsea Finn, Trevor Darrel, Pieter Abbeel, End-to-End Training of Deep Visuomotor Policies. ArXiv, 16 Oct 2015. [ArXiv]
- Tom Schaul, John Quan, Ioannis Antonoglou, David Silver, Prioritized Experience Replay, ArXiv, 18 Nov 2015. [ArXiv]
- Hado van Hasselt, Arthur Guez, David Silver, Deep Reinforcement Learning with Double Q-Learning, ArXiv, 22 Sep 2015. [ArXiv]
- Volodymyr Mnih, Adrià Puigdomènech Badia, Mehdi Mirza, Alex Graves, Timothy P. Lillicrap, Tim Harley, David Silver, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Asynchronous Methods for Deep Reinforcement Learning, ArXiv, 4 Feb 2016.[ArXiv]

##### Applications

**Game Playing**

- Doom! - https://github.com/openai/doom-py/tree/master/doom_py
- Traditional Games
- Backgammon - "TD-Gammon" game play using TD(λ) (Tesauro, ACM 1995) [Paper]
- Chess - "KnightCap" program using TD(λ) (Baxter, arXiv 1999) [arXiv]
- Chess - Giraffe: Using deep reinforcement learning to play chess (Lai, arXiv 2015) [arXiv]
- Computer Games
- Human-level Control through Deep Reinforcement Learning (Mnih, Nature 2015) [Paper] [Code] [Video]
- Flappy Bird Reinforcement Learning [Video]
- MarI/O - learning to play Mario with evolutionary reinforcement learning using artificial neural networks (Stanley, Evolutionary Computation 2002) [Paper][Video]

**Control**

- An Application of Reinforcement Learning to Aerobatic Helicopter Flight (Abbeel, NIPS 2006) [Paper][Video]
- Autonomous helicopter control using Reinforcement Learning Policy Search Methods (Bagnell, ICRA 2011) [Paper]

**Tutorials / Websites**

- Mance Harmon and Stephanie Harmon, Reinforcement Learning: A Tutorial
- Short introduction to some Reinforcement Learning algorithms
- C. Igel, M.A. Riedmiller, et al., Reinforcement Learning in a Nutshell, ESANN, 2007. [Paper]
- UNSW - Reinforcement Learning
- Introduction
- TD-Learning
- Q-Learning and SARSA
- Applet for "Cat and Mouse" Game
- ROS Reinforcement Learning Tutorial
- POMDP for Dummies
- Scholarpedia articles on:
- Reinforcement Learning
- Temporal Difference Learning
- Repository with useful MATLAB Software, presentations, and demo videos
- Bibliography on Reinforcement Learning
- UC Berkeley - CS 294: Deep Reinforcement Learning, Fall 2015 (John Schulman, Pieter Abbeel) [Class Website]
- Blog posts on Reinforcement Learning, Parts 1-4 by Travis DeWolf
- The Arcade Learning Environment - Atari 2600 games environment for developing AI agents
- Deep Reinforcement Learning: Pong from Pixels by Andrej Karpathy
- Demystifying Deep Reinforcement Learning

**Online Demos**

- Real-world demonstrations of Reinforcement Learning
- Deep Q-Learning Demo - A deep Q learning demonstration using ConvNetJS
- Deep Q-Learning with Tensor Flow - A deep Q learning demonstration using Google Tensorflow
- Reinforcement Learning Demo - A reinforcement learning demo using reinforcejs by Andrej Karpathy